- Philosophical skepticism - Wikipedia
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- Augustine and Skepticism Essay
The Eleatic philosophers those associated with the Greek city of Elea in Italy rejected the existence of plurality and change, conceiving of reality as a static One , and they denied that reality could be described in terms of the categories of ordinary experience. On the other hand, Heracleitus and his pupil Cratylus thought that the world was in such a state of flux that no permanent, unchangeable truth about it could be found; and Xenophanes , a wandering poet and philosopher, doubted whether humans could distinguish true from false knowledge.
A more developed form of skepticism appeared in some of the views attributed to Socrates and in the views of certain Sophists itinerant and generally mercenary teachers of philosophy, rhetoric , and other subjects. Socrates, as portrayed in the early dialogues of his pupil Plato, was always questioning the knowledge claims of others; in the Apology , he famously admits that all that he really knows is that he knows nothing. Another Sophist, Gorgias , advanced the skeptical-nihilist thesis that nothing exists; and, if something did exist, it could not be known; and, if it could be known, it could not be communicated.
The putative father of Greek skepticism, however, was Pyrrhon of Elis c. He avoided committing himself to any views about what the world was really like and acted only according to appearances. In this way he sought happiness, or at least mental peace.
Philosophical skepticism - Wikipedia
Starting from the skeptical doctrines of Socrates, its leaders, Arcesilaus and Carneades , set forth a series of epistemological arguments to show that nothing could be known, challenging primarily what were then the two foremost schools, Stoicism and Epicureanism.
They denied that any criteria could be found for distinguishing the true from the false; instead, only reasonable or probable standards could be established. This limited, or probabilistic, skepticism was the view of the Academy until the 1st century bce , when the Roman philosopher and orator Cicero was a student there. His Academica and De natura deorum are the main sources of modern knowledge of this movement.
The other major form of ancient skepticism was Pyrrhonism , apparently developed by medical skeptics in Alexandria. Beginning with Aenesidemus 1st century bce , this movement, named after Pyrrhon, criticized the Academic skeptics because they claimed to know too much—namely, that nothing could be known and that some things are more probable than others. The Pyrrhonian attitude is preserved in the writings of one of its last leaders, Sextus Empiricus 2nd or 3rd century ce.
In his Outlines of Pyrrhonism and Adversus mathematicos, Sextus presented the tropes developed by previous Pyrrhonists. The 10 tropes attributed to Aenesidemus showed the difficulties encountered by attempts to ascertain the truth or reliability of judgments based on sense information, owing to the variability and differences of human and animal perceptions.
Other arguments raised difficulties in determining whether there are any reliable criteria or standards—logical, rational, or otherwise—for judging whether anything is true or false. To settle any disagreement, a criterion seems to be required. Any purported criterion, however, would have to be based either on another criterion—thus leading to an infinite regress of criteria—or on itself, which would be circular.
Sextus offered arguments to challenge any claims of dogmatic philosophers to know more than what is evident, and in so doing he presented, in one form or another, practically all of the skeptical arguments that have ever appeared in subsequent philosophy. Sextus said that his arguments were aimed at leading people to a state of ataraxia unperturbability. People who thought that they could know reality were constantly disturbed and frustrated. If they could be led to suspend judgment, however, they would find peace of mind. In this state of suspension they would neither affirm nor deny the possibility of knowledge but would remain peaceful, still waiting to see what might develop.
The Pyrrhonist did not become inactive in this state of suspense but lived undogmatically according to appearances, customs, and natural inclinations. You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. John of Damascus Law, Money, and War Later Orthodox Louth on John of Damascus Rhetoric in Byzantium Manuscripts Palaiologan Science Trizio on East and West Photius Byzantine Historiography.
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Augustine of Hippo/Augustine's Theory of Knowledge
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Augustine and Skepticism Essay
Submitted by Rhys W. Roark on 10 February Dear Peter, Most excellent show today on Augustine and memory. Submitted by Pete Bataleck on 11 February Roark on 12 February Dear Phillip, Thanks for the reference. This sound just like what I am looking for. If you happen on anything else, let me know. Best, Rhys pronounced "rise". Submitted by Peter Adamson on 16 February Hi Phillip and Rhys, Thanks for this discussion -- the best texts on memory in Augustine are as you say Confessions 10, and then On the Trinity, especially I guess books If you've covered the distinction in any of the episodes,I apologise, it must have passed me by.
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Best Regards, Dave Martin. Ta, Marissa. Thanks for the questions folks. To handle them in order: 1. In fact there might be room for three kinds of eternity: a Subject to change, but having existed infinitely in past and future. Hope all that helps! Submitted by Dave Martin on 16 February Submitted by Dave Martin on 17 February Looking forward to the next podcast!
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